Intoxication with Amanitin has been reported to be lethal in up to 25% of all cases and the mortality rate in children under 10 years of age is above 50%. Therefore, this intoxication should be ruled out in all patients presenting gastrointestinal symptoms after a mushroom ingestion. Amanitin analysis in urine is a valuable diagnostic tool and does significantly contribute to the management of mushroom poisoning.


Melatonin, the major hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is a key modulator of seasonal and circadian biorhythms. The synthesis and secretion of melatonin is controlled by a circadian clock in the hypothalamus and is synchronized by the light-dark cycle. BÜHLMANN provides the gold standard in immunological determination of melatonin with different RIA and ELISA.


The principal metabolite of melatonin is 6-sulfatoxy-melatonin. The particular advantage of measuring 6-sulfatoxy-melatonin is the ability to assess pineal function by urine sampling, since urine contains only traces (approx. 1%) of non-metabolized melatonin. The measurement of 6-sulfatoxy-melatonin in urine provides a non-invasive, integrated parameter by which circadian rhythms can be assessed over a period of time.